ADB helps developing member countries improve their living conditions and quality of life by financing infrastructure, environment, regional cooperation, education, health, agriculture, and public sector management projects. In 2015, ADB approved 65 loans and grant projects for more than US $7 billion, contributing to environmental sustainability. ADB’s work on the illegal wildlife trade originated in the Environmental Law and Enforcement component of the Office of the General Counsel’s Law, Justice, and Development Program, which initiated the Asian Judges Network on Environment.
The ECCC finances environmental protection and conservation of natural heritage. Through ECCC’s Enforcement Branch, the Wildlife Enforcement Directorate (WED) conducts targeted operations to address illegal trade of rhinoceros horn and ivory from elephants and helps conserve habitats and protected areas at high risk for non-compliance. ECCC/WED supports the INTERPOL Wildlife Crime Working Group and the INTERPOL National Bureau to help combat IWT.
The EC is the European Union’s executive body. It represents the interest of the EU as a whole and works on issues related to human rights, governance, agriculture, economic growth, infrastructure, environment, energy, health, and education. From 2010 to 2016, DEVCO supported over 365 biodiversityrelated projects in over 30 countries, with a total volume of more than €1.4 billion. The EC is focused on implementing the recently adopted EU Action Plan against Wildlife Trafficking.
FFI's' mission is to act to conserve threatened species and ecosystems worldwide, choosing solutions that are sustainable, are based on sound science, and take into account human needs. FFI’s work spans the globe, with over 140 projects in over 40 countries. FFI focuses on reducing poaching, trafficking, and demand. FFI is also developing innovative technologies and finance mechanisms to address IWT more effectively.
Through grants and loans, AfD finances health, education, agriculture, water supply, transportation, energy, nature, and development programs/projects in developing countries. From 2011 to 2013, AfD invested €420 million in biodiversity projects. AfD’s strategic biodiversity priorities include protecting, restoring, managing, and enhancing ecosystems, while fairly sharing the benefits of their utilization, mainstreaming ecosystem conservation in all sectoral development policies, and strengthening partnerships.
The GEFhas supported over 1,300 global biodiversity projects in more than 155 countries, with a total volume of more than US $4.2 billion. The GEF is the largest funding mechanism for protected areas worldwide. Combating IWT is a high priority for the GEF, and its investment in the Global Wildlife Program provides over $131 million across 19 countries in Asia and Africa and will serve as a catalyst to channel financial and technical resources to combat IWT.
The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) works to combat poverty; secure food; establish peace, democracy, and human rights; and preserve the environment and natural resources. Since 2013, the German government has provided €500 million annually for the global conservation of forests and other ecosystems. The German Development Cooperation is committed to supporting priority IWT investments that strengthen protected area management, law enforcement capabilities, and demand reduction.
Japan finances programs in development, emergency humanitarian assistance, infrastructure development, disaster risk reduction, health, women’s empowerment, education, the environment, and climate change. The Japan Biodiversity Fund was created to help developing countries develop capacity to implement the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 (the Aichi Biodiversity Targets), to revise their National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans, and to strengthen their capacity to implement the Convention.
The government of the Netherlands finances biodiversity and wildlife crime projects through the Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Specifically for the biodiversity sector, the Netherlands invests in park management globally. The Dutch goals for international policy on biodiversity are to bring loss of biodiversity to a halt by 2020, to consolidate the Natura 2000 network, and to compensate for biodiversity loss by applying the No Net Loss principle.
NORAD's main focus areas are climate change and the environment. Specific programs within this sector include the International Climate and Forest Initiative, which aims at supporting efforts to slow, halt, and eventually reduce greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). Additionally, Norway contributes to sustainable fishing in developing countries.
SIDA finances democracy, human rights, sustainable infrastructure, health, market development, peace and security, the environment, agriculture, and education. All of SIDA’s initiatives and all sectors of development cooperation have integrated environment and climate aspects. In 2012, approximately SEK 1.9 billion (approximately US $223 million) of aid channeled through SIDA was used for efforts to promote environment and sustainable development
UK-DEFRA hosts the Darwin Secretariat, which is a major U.K. government grants scheme that helps to protect biodiversity and the natural environment through locally based projects worldwide. Through the IWT challenge fund, DEFRA supports over 34 wildlife crime projects in more than 25 countries, with a total volume of more than £9.8 million (approximately US $15 million). The U.K. government aims to end illegal wildlife trade by improving enforcement, reducing demand for products, and supporting sustainable livelihoods and economic development in affected communities.
UNDP works in over 170 countries and territories, helping to eradicate poverty and advance sustainable development that leads to transformational change and real improvements in people’s lives. Its biodiversity and ecosystems program covers more than 120 countries and 400 projects, with US $1.6 billion in funding and US $5.1 billion in co-financing. UNDP has supported more than 3,000 protected areas around the world, covering 669 million hectares, including marine, terrestrial and indigenous and community conserved areas. UNDP partners with governments and other U.N. agencies to tackle poaching and illegal wildlife trafficking and to reduce the global demand for wildlife and wildlife products.
UNEP finances projects that address climate change, disasters and conflict, ecosystem management, environmental governance, and much more. As of 2012, UNEP implemented GEF-supported projects over 14 global, 16 regional, and 30 national global biodiversity projects with a total volume of more than US $413 million. UNEP’s contributions to addressing IWT consist of maintaining political momentum to support international cooperation; providing support to legal, judicial, and enforcement measures; and promoting capacity development and targeting approaches to awareness raising and demand reduction.
USAID works to end extreme global poverty and enable resilient, democratic societies to realize their potential. USAID has invested more than US $2.7 billion in biodiversity conservation since 2000, including support for community-based natural resource management, new and stronger protected areas, and policy reform at local and national levels. Funding for actions that combat wildlife trafficking has increased steadily in the last five years, with more than US $67 million in 2015 for fighting poaching, improving enforcement and prosecution, disrupting transit, and reducing consumer demand in Africa and Asia. Prominent USAID programs include the Wildlife Crime Tech Challenge, ROUTES, ARREST, and Wildlife TRAPS.
The USDOS is a co-chair and key agency on the U.S. government’s Task Force on Wildlife Trafficking, with the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs ( EOS) leading international policy efforts related to wildlife crime and the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) leading programmatic funding to address wildlife trafficking challenges. The USDOS supports priority IWT investments that strengthen national partners’ legislative frameworks, improve anti-poaching efforts, advance investigative techniques, enhance prosecutorial/judicial capabilities, and achieve robust prosecutions and serious punishment for wildlife traffickers.
USFWS's' International Affairs Program coordinates domestic and international efforts to protect, restore, and enhance the world’s diverse wildlife and their habitats, with a focus on species of international concern. USFWS is a key agency on the U.S. government’s Task Force on Wildlife Trafficking. In 2015, USFWS awarded more than US $50 million (in grants, cooperative agreements, and matching funds) to 141 wildlife trafficking-related projects through its International Affairs Office. USFWS is committed to supporting priority IWT investments that strengthen enforcement and enhance cooperation.
Vulcan Philanthropy supports innovative approaches that can deliver solutions related to smart cities, ocean health, conservation, climate change, impact investing, global health, and education. In 1990–2014, The Paul G. Allen Family Foundation awarded more than US $494 million to nonprofit organizations. In the biodiversity sector, Vulcan Philanthropy finances projects related to data, innovation, strengthening communities, policy change, and public engagement. Vulcan Philanthropy funded The Great Elephant Census—the first pan-African aerial survey in 40 years.
WCS works to save wildlife and wild places worldwide through science, conservation action, education, and inspiring people to value nature. With programs in nearly 60 countries worldwide and 120 years of experience, WCS works to ensure that species are conserved, ecosystems are intact and functional, and nature provides benefits to local communities and economies. WCS’s law enforcement, anti-trafficking, and global policy expertise enables the organization to address wildlife exploitation and illegal trade in source, transit, and consumer countries at all points along the illegal trade chain—from protecting species in the wild to anti-trafficking and enforcement assistance and influencing consumer behavior.
The Wildcat Foundation is a private not-for-profit philanthropic foundation. Its mission is to support extensive, comprehensive, and creative responses to combat poaching and improve wildlife conservation in Africa. During 2014 and 2015, the foundation approved over US $20 million in support of wildlife conservation projects in more than nine countries. Wildcat supports priority IWT investments that strengthen law enforcement capabilities and on-the-ground support to protected areas to address poaching.
The World Bank has two main goals: to eradicate poverty and promote shared prosperity. In the biodiversity sector, from 2004 to 2013 the WBG supported over 245 global biodiversity conservation projects across 74 countries worth over US$ 1 billion. Additionally, the WBG is one of the largest providers of development assistance for combating environment and natural resources crime. The WBG is committed to helping countries achieve poverty reduction and prosperity goals by helping them manage their natural resources more sustainably. The WBG helps countries combat wildlife crime through efforts related to the Global Wildlife Program, the International Consortium on Combatting Wildlife Crime (ICCWC), and implementation of regional and country-specific investments.
The WWF Network focuses on six key goals related to Climate & Energy, Food, Forests, Freshwater, Oceans, and Wildlife. Since its founding, WWF has invested US$11.5 billion in more than 13,000 conservation projects. WWF launched the Wildlife Crime Initiative (WCI) with the goal of halving the impact of wildlife crime on iconic species by 2024. WCI is focused on all points along the IWT chain (poaching, trafficking, and consumption) as well as advocating for the adoption and implementation of more-effective national and international policies.
ZSL's' Conservation Programme leads over 150 projects worldwide. Going forward, ZSL’s projects will include securing key habitats in Asia and Africa through improved site-based protection and strengthened law enforcement capacity; developing technology to monitor species and creating real-time alarm systems for protected areas; continued training and capacity in implementing the SMART approach; and developing innovative financing mechanisms to generate long-term sustainable funding for rhino conservation and effective protected area management at scale.
CITES is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. The CITES Secretariat plays a coordinating, advisory, and servicing role in the working of the Convention, monitoring its implementation and providing assistance in the fields of legislation, enforcement, science, and training. CITES is the lead agency for the implementation of the National Ivory Action Plans, Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), and the Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS).
IUCN is the world’s largest environmental network, harnessing the knowledge, resources, and reach of more than 161 member countries, 1,300 member organizations, and 16,000 experts. IUCN manages the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species; the IUCN Species Programme, in conjunction with the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) and partners, is driving the fight to save species for people and nature. IUCN, with partners, is supporting on-the-ground conservation with two funding mechanisms: Save Our Species (SOS) and the Integrated Tiger Habitat Conservation Programme (ITHCP).
TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade-monitoring network, works globally on trade in wild animals/plants as it relates to biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. TRAFFIC is a strategic alliance of WWF and IUCN. Key IWT programs implemented by TRAFFIC include ROUTES (Reducing Opportunities for Unlawful Transport of Endangered Species), W-TRAPS (Wildlife Trafficking, Response, Assessment and Priority Setting), and DETER (Demand Reduction and Enforcement Supporting the Conservation of Elephants and Rhinos).
The UNODC Global Programme for Combating Wildlife and Forest Crime (GP), a four-year program, aims to link existing regional efforts in a global system and to enhance capacity building and wildlife law enforcement networks at regional and sub-regional levels. UNODC has implemented 10 Wildlife and Forest Crime toolkits globally and in the next few years will implement the toolkit in nine additional countries. Key programs such as the UNODC-WCO Container Control Programme (CCP) and Wildlife Forensic Capacity support to Africa will continue to help combat IWT.
In a world where borders divide, Customs connects. The WCO is an intergovernmental organization that is dynamically leading modernization and connectivity in a rapidly changing world, and provides leadership, guidance and support to Customs administrations to secure and facilitate legitimate trade, realize revenues, build capacity and protect society. The WCO is a knowledge-based and action-oriented organization which believes in transparent, honest, and auditable governance procedures. The WCO is responsive to its Members, stakeholders in trade, and society and capitalize on technology and innovation where inclusiveness, diversity and equitable treatment and opportunities for all is embraced.
Castro, G., I. Locker, V. Russell, L. Cornwell, and E. Fajer. 2000. Mapping Conservation Investments: An Assessment of Biodiversity Funding in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Chase, M. J,, S. Schlossberg, C. R. Griffin et al. 2016. Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants. PeerJ. 4:e2354. doi:10.7717/peerj.2354. de La Mata, G. C., and S. Riega-Campos. 2014. An Analysis of International Conservation Funding in the Amazon.
de La Mata, G. C., and S. Riega-Campos. 2014. An Analysis of International Conservation Funding in the Amazon.
Duffy, R., and J. Humphreys. 2014. Mapping Donors: Key Areas for Tackling Illegal Wildlife Trade (Africa and Asia). London.
European Union. 2014. Nature and Biodiversity. Accessed on September 26, 2016.
European Union. 2015. Larger than Elephants, Inputs for an EU Strategic Approach to Wildlife Conservation in Africa—Synthesis. Brussels.
GFI (Global Financial Integrity). 2011. Transnational crime in the development world.. Accessed on September 26, 2016.
TRAFFIC. 2008. What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam. Washington, D.C.
UNEP, CITES, IUCN, and TRAFFIC. 2013. Elephants in the Dust … The African Elephant Crisis. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal. Nairobi.
UNODC. 2016. World Wildlife Crime Report: Trafficking in Protected Species. World Bank. 2014. Enforcing Environmental Laws for Strong Economies and Safe Communities. Agriculture and environmental services discussion paper no. 5. Washington, D.C.
World Bank. 2014. Enforcing Environmental Laws for Strong Economies and Safe Communities. Agriculture and environmental services discussion paper no. 5. Washington, D.C.
Asian Development Bank — https://www.adb.org/
Asian Development Bank (2015). Annual Report—Scaling Up to Meet New Development Challenges. Philippines.
Canada — https://www.ec.gc.ca/
Environment Canada (2014). Wildlife Enforcement Directorate Annual Summary 2013–2014. Gatineau QC.
CITES — https://www.cites.org/
European Commission — http://ec.europa.eu/environment/index_en.htm
European Commission (2016). The EU Action Plan against Wildlife Trafficking. Brussels.
Fauna and Flora International — http://www.fauna-flora.org/ Fauna & Flora (2014) International Conservation Report 2014–2015. Cambridge.
France — http://www.afd.fr/ Agence Française de Développement (AfD) Biodiversity Action Plan 2013–2016. Paris.
Germany — http://www.bmz.de/en/index.html ,
GIZ (2015). Combating Poaching and the Illegal Wildlife Trade (Ivory, Rhino Horn) in Africa and Asia. Bonn.
BMZ and BMUB (2014). Committed to Biodiversity. Germany’s International Cooperation in Support of the Convention on Biological Diversity for Sustainable Development. Bonn.
BMZ and BMUB (2015). Combating Wildlife Crime, a collaborative approach of the German Government. Bonn.
KfW (2016) Current Topics—Biodiversity. Frankfurt.
Global Environment Facility — http://www.thegef.org/
GEF (2015) Behind the Numbers 2015—A Closer Look at GEF Achievements. Washington, D.C.
GEF (2014) Poaching and the Illegal Wildlife Trade Crisis: The GEF response. Washington, D.C.
GEF (2014) The GEF-6 Biodiversity Strategy. Washington, D.C.
International Union for Conservation of Nature — http://www.iucn.org/ http://saveourspecies.org/sites/sospecies/files/content/documents/sos_report_2016.pdf. Accessed on September 26, 2016. https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/content/documents/ithcp_project_portfolio_snapshots.pdf. Accessed on September 26, 2016.
Japan — http://www.mofa.go.jp/
Netherlands — https://www.government.nl/
Norway — https://www.norad.no/en/front/
Oak Foundation — http://oakfnd.org/
Sweden — http://www.sida.se/
TRAFFIC — http://www.traffic.org/
United Kingdom — http://www.darwininitiative.org.uk/
United Kingdom (2015) UK Commitment to Action on the Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT)—an update. London.
DEFRA (2015). Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) Challenge Fund: Project Funding. London.
United Kingdom (2014) UK Commitment to Action on the Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT). London.
United Nations Development Programme — http://www.undp.org/
United Nations Environment Programme — http://www.unep.org/
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime — https://www.unodc.org/
United States Aid for International Development — https://www.usaid.gov/
USAID (2016) Biodiversity Conservation and Forestry Programs, 2015 Report. Washington, D.C.
USAID (2015) Conservation is Wildlife. Washington, D.C.
USAID (2015) Biodiversity Conservation and Forestry Programs, 2015 Report. Washington, D.C.
USAID (2014) Biodiversity Conservation and Forestry Programs, 2014 Report. Washington, D.C.
USAID (2013) Biodiversity Conservation and Forestry Programs, 2013 Report. Washington, D.C.
USAID (2015) Measuring Efforts to Combat Wildlife Crime: A Toolkit for Improving Action and Accountability. Washington, D.C.
United States Fish and Wildlife Service — https://www.fws.gov/
United States Department of State — http://www.state.gov/
U.S. National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking—2015 Annual Progress Assessment. Washington, D.C.
Vulcan Philanthropy — http://www.vulcan.com/
Chase et al. (2016), Continent-wide survey reveals massive decline in African savannah elephants. http://www.greatelephantcensus.com/final-report/. Accessed on September 26, 2016.
Wildlife Conservation Society — https://www.wcs.org/
WCS (2015) Annual Report. Bronx.
Wildcat Foundation — http://www.wildcatfoundation.us/
WWF — http://www.worldwildlife.org/
WWF—US (2015) Annual Report. Washington, D.C.
Zoological Society of London — https://www.zsl.org/ ZSL (2015) Conservation Review. London.
Association of Zoos and Aquariums - https://www.aza.org/cgf
Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund - http://www.cepf.net/
Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund Corporation - https://thewaltdisneycompany.com/environment/
Google—Global Impact Awards - https://www.google.com/intl/en/giving/impact-awards.html
International Fund for Animal Welfare - http://www.ifaw.org/
Howard G. Buffett Foundation - http://www.thehowardgbuffettfoundation.org/
Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation - http://leonardodicaprio.org/
Liz Claiborne Art Ortenberg Foundation - http://www.lcaof.org/
Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund - http://www.speciesconservation.org/
Novamedia—Dutch and Swedish Lottery - http://www.novamedia.nl/
Rufford Foundation - http://www.rufford.org/
The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust - http://www.helmsleytrust.org/
Wyss Foundation - http://wyssfoundation.org/
Due to differences in how USFWS and USAID categorized activities for this analysis, some funding levels differ from those used to calculate prior USAID reporting on combating wildlife trafficking programming in Central Africa."
The EC funding comprises of selected biodiversity-related projects funded by the Commission's Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development (DG DEVCO), from 2010 to 2018.
GEF funding was categorized as GEF, rather than through the implementing agencies and only includes GEF-5 and GEF-6 replenishment cycles. Data does not include funding from the GEF-7 replenishment cycle, which will include approximately US $82 million in new GEF programming financing for IWT related projects.
For Germany, the funding analyzed is provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), and supplemented since 2008 with Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and NuclearSafety (BMUB) funds. The majority of BMZ’s financing, planning, and coordinating development cooperation is channeled through Germany’s bilateral development cooperation arrangements:
GIZ staff estimated IWT intervention categories by analyzing internal project documents.
The World Bank data comprises of funding from IBRD, IDA, DGF and Technical Assistance loans only. Funding does not include any GEF grants.